07 April 2009

Design of Ship Hull Structures - Okumoto, et.al (2009)

The ship design is divided generally into four parts, hull form design, arrangement design, hull structure design, and fitting design (hull fitting and machinery fitting).
The design of merchant ships starts with the owner’s requirements such as kind and volume of cargo, transportation route and time generally. Sometimes the owner has a special requirement such as no bulkhead in hold.
Based on the above requirements a general arrangement plan is roughly designed and the studies are to be done from stability, strength, operation, and habitability viewpoints. Thus the general arrangement plan is finally decided with correction if necessary. Referring the lines plan, which shows the hull form, and the general arrangement plan, in the hull structure design the size, position, and materials of the structural members are decided, including the fabrication and assembly methods.
The most important duty of the hull structure design is to supply a strong enough hull structure against the internal and external loads. The text books or hand books of hull strength are helpful to the hull structure designer. However these books are generally written from the viewpoint of the strength theory and seem not to be sufficient from the design viewpoint.
The authors are hull structure designers in four generations, from the developing era of the structural design by large increase of the ship size and increase of ship production to establishing era of the design technology using computer; CAD and CAE. In this book the experiences of the authors in the above generations are condensed from the design viewpoint. Hence this book includes not only basic theory but also practical design matter. The authors are convinced that this book will be strong weapon for designers to design the hull structure as well as for students to understand the hull structure design in the world.

Table of Contents

Part I FUNDAMENTALS

1 Philosophy of Hull Structure Design
1.1 Importance of Hull Structure Design - 1.2 Design Procedure of Structures - 1.3 Hull Structure Design Policy - 1.4 Basic Idea of Hull Structure Design - 1.5 Studies on Loads Applied - 1.6 Reliable Design
2 Structural Design Loads
2.1 Introduction - 2.2 Longitudinal Strength Load - 2.3 Transverse Strength Load - 2.4 Ship Response Calculation in Waves - 2.4.1 Introduction - 2.4.2 Strip Method - 2.4.3 Short - Term Prediction - 2.4.4 Long - Term Prediction
3 Strength Evaluation
3.1 General - 3.1.1 Introduction - 3.1.2 Procedure of Structural Strength Evaluation - 3.2 Stress and Strain - 3.2.1 Stress Pattern - 3.2.2 Biaxial Stress Condition - 3.2.3 Combination of Normal Stress and Shearing Stress - 3.2.4 Principal Stress and Principal Shearing Stress - 3.2.5 Equivalent Stress - 3.2.6 Evaluation of Stress Calculated by FEM - 3.3 Evaluation of Stress - 3.3.1 Criteria of Failure - 3.3.2 Allowable Stress - 3.4 Fatigue Strength - 3.4.1 Introduction - 3.4.2 S–N Curve - 3.4.3 Fatigue Damage - 3.5 Buckling of Ship Structure - 3.5.1 Introduction - 3.5.2 Column Buckling - 3.5.3 Plate Buckling - 3.6 Plastic Strength - 3.6.1 Philosophy of Plastic Strength - 3.6.2 Plastic Bending - 3.6.3 Plastic Section Modulus - 3.6.4 Collapse of a Beam - 3.6.5 Collapse of a Plate - 3.7 Vibration in Ship - 3.7.1 Introduction - 3.7.2 Basic Theory of Single Degree of Freedom Vibration System - 3.7.3 Vibration Problems in Ships - 3.7.4 Vibration Prevention Design - 3.8 Selection of Strength Analysis Method - 3.8.1 Introduction - 3.8.2 Type of AnalysisMethod - 3.8.3 Analysis Procedure - 3.8.4 Evaluation of Analysis Result
4 Hull Structure Design System
4.1 Design Flow. - 4.2 Basic Design of Hull Structures - 4.2.1 Role of Basic Design - 4.2.2 Check of General Arrangement - 4.2.3 Check of Other Drawings - 4.2.4 Optimization Technique in Basic Design Process - 4.3 Structural Drawings - 4.3.1 Approval Drawings - 4.3.2 Detail Drawings - 4.3.3 Production Data - 4.4 Standardization - 4.5 Negotiation with Owner
5 Progress in Ship Design
5.1 Increase in Ship Dimensions of Tankers - 5.2 Specialization of Ships - 5.3 Change of Hull Form - 5.4 Ship Vibration Caused by Socio-Economical Change - 5.5 Regulations for Environmental Conservation - 5.6 Technical Innovation
6 Materials
6.1 Hull Steel - 6.2 Grades of Steel - 6.3 Higher - Strength Steel - 6.4 Steel Sections - 6.5 Other Materials - 6.6 Scattering of Material Properties - 6.7 Scattering of Physical Properties - 6.8 Residual Stress
7 Finite Element Method
7.1 Characteristics of FEM - 7.2 Fundamentals of FEM - 7.2.1 StiffnessMatrix - 7.2.2 Plane Stress - 7.3 Procedure of FEM - 7.4 Application of FEM - 7.4.1 Mesh Division - 7.4.2 Loading and Supporting Condition -
7.4.3 Degrees of Freedom
References

Part II THEORY
1 Design of Beam
1.1 Effective Breadth of Attached Plates - 1.1.1 Bending in Elastic Conditions - 1.1.2 EffectiveWidth After Plate Buckling - 1.2 Span Point of Beams - 1.3 Design of Cross Section - 1.3.1 Calculation of Section Modulus - 1.4 Bending Moment - 1.5 Easy Solution of Statically Indeterminate Beams - 1.6 Boundary Condition - 1.7 Cross - Sectional Area of Beams - 1.8 Optimum Design of Beam Section - 1.8.1 Elastic Design - 1.8.2 Plastic Design - 1.8.3 Optimal Proportion for Beams - 1.9 Simply Supported Beams and Continuous Beams - 1.10 Effect of Struts - 1.11 Additional Bending Moment due to Forced Displacement - 1.12 LateralMovement of Beams
2 Design of Girders
2.1 Shearing Force - 2.2 Rational Design of Girders - 2.3 Bottom Transverses Supported by Centerline Girder - 2.4 Deflection of Girders
3 Damage of Girders
3.1 Buckling Caused by Compression - 3.2 Buckling Caused by Bending - 3.3 Buckling Caused by Shearing - 3.4 Buckling Caused by Concentrated Loads - 3.5 Cracks Around Slot - 3.5.1 Cracks of First Generation - 3.5.2 Cracks Propagating into Longitudinals - 3.5.3 Cracks Around Slots due to Shear Stress on Transverses
4 Design of Pillars
4.1 Slenderness Ratio of Pillars - 4.2 Sectional Shape of Pillars - 4.3 Pillar Supporting Tensile Force - 4.4 Connection of Pillar at Top and Bottom - 4.5 Cross Ties - 4.6 Radius of Gyration of Square Section
5 Design of Plates
5.1 Boundary Conditions of Plates - 5.2 Strength of Plates Under Lateral Loads - 5.3 Strength of Plates by In - Plane Loads - 5.4 Plates Supporting Bending and Compression Simultaneously - 5.5 Stress Concentration Around Openings - 5.6 Material and Roll Direction - 5.7 Damage of Plates
6 Design of Stiffened Panel
6.1 Grillage Structure - 6.2 Optimum Space of Girders - 6.3 Optimum Space of Beams - 6.3.1 Design Condition Against Lateral Load like Water Pressure - 6.3.2 Design Conditions from Vibration Viewpoint - 6.3.3 Minimum Plate Thickness - 6.3.4 Optimum Beam Space
7 Torsion
7.1 Overview of the Theory - 7.2 Torsion Theory of Closed Section Bars - 7.3 Torsional Rigidity of Various Sections - 7.4 Torsion Theory of I - Section - 7.5 Torsion Theory of Open Section Bars
8 Deflection of Hull Structures
8.1 Deflection of Hull Girder - 8.2 Deflection of Beams with Optimum Section - 8.3 Deflection of Girders and Web Frames - 8.4 Additional Stress Caused by Deflection - 8.5 Shearing Deflection
9 Welding
9.1 ButtWelding - 9.2 Fillet Welding - 9.3 Fillet Welding with Higher Strength Electrode - 9.4 Water Stopping Welding - 9.5 Scallop and Serration - 9.6 Conversion of Butt Welding to Fillet Welding - 9.7 Long Intermittent Welding - 9.8 Shrinkage of Deposit Metal - 9.9 One SideWelding
10 Fracture Control
10.1 Jack - Knifed Failure of Liberty Ships - 10.2 Fracture Mechanics - 10.2.1 Principles. - 10.2.2 Linear Fracture Mechanics - 10.2.3 Non - Linear Fracture Mechanics - 10.2.4 Fracture Toughness - 10.2.5 Grade of Steel - 10.3 Fatigue Strength Design - 10.3.1 Crack Propagation Calculation by Paris’s Equation - 10.3.2 Fatigue Strength Design Taking into Account Construction Tolerances
11 Hull Structural Vibration
11.1 Introduction - 11.2 Basic Features of Hull Structure Vibration - 11.3 Overview of Ship Vibration - 11.4 Boundary Conditions of Hull Structure Vibration - 11.5 Current Boundary Conditions of Hull Structure Vibration
References

Part III APPLICATIONS
1 Hull Structure Arrangement
1.1 Hold Arrangement - 1.2 Criteria of Design of Hull Structure Arrangement - 1.2.1 Wing Tanks of Tankers - 1.2.2 Bulkhead Arrangement of Bulk Carriers - 1.3 Bulkhead Arrangement Beyond Cargo Hold - 1.3.1 Bow Construction Without Extended Longitudinal Bulkheads - 1.3.2 Engine Room Construction Without Extended Longitudinal Bulkheads
2 Longitudinal Strength of Hull Girder
2.1 Allowable Stress for Longitudinal Strength - 2.2 Position of Maximum Longitudinal Bending Moment - 2.3 Calculation of Section Modulus of Hull Girder - 2.4 Longitudinal Strength and Hull Steel Weight - 2.5 Application of High Tensile Steel - 2.6 Longitudinal Strength Analysis in Waves - 2.7 Arrangement of Longitudinal Strength Members - 2.8 Stress Concentration on Longitudinal Strength Members - 2.9 Additional Bending of Local Members Due to Hull Girder Bending - 2.10 Longitudinal Bending Stress in Fore & Aft Parts of Ship - 2.11 Hull Steel Weight Reduce to Ultimate Strength
3 Transverse Strength of Ship
3.1 Allowable Stress for Transverse Strength - 3.2 Long Taper & Snake Head - 3.3 Shape of Bottom Transverse in Center Tank - 3.4 Shape of Bottom Transverse in Wing Tank - 3.5 Transverse Strength of Tanker - 3.5.1 Cross Ties - 3.5.2 Load Applied on Transverse Strength Members - 3.5.3 Inside Pressure in Wide Tanks - 3.5.4 Connection Between Transverse Ring and Side Shell - 3.5.5 Buckling onWeb of Transverse Rings - 3.5.6 Straight Type and Circular Type Construction - 3.5.7 Transverse Rings at Fore & Aft Parts of Tank - 3.6 Transverse Strength of Ore Carrier - 3.7 Transverse Strength of Bulk Carrier - 3.8 Transverse Strength of Container Ships
4 Torsional Strength
4.1 Structural Damage Due to Torsion (Example No. 1) - 4.2 Structural Damage Due to Torsion (Example No. 2)
5 Shell Structure
5.1 Thickness of Shell Plates - 5.2 Shell at Bottom Forward - 5.3 Shell at Bow Flare - 5.4 Bilge Shell - 5.5 Shell near Stern Frame - 5.6 Shell Damage
6 Bulkheads
6.1 Strength of Bulkhead Plates - 6.2 Horizontal Girders on Transverse Bulkheads (in Center Tank) - 6.3 Horizontal Girder Arrangement on Bulkheads - 6.4 Vertical Stiffeners on Transverse Bulkheads - 6.5 Swash Bulkheads - 6.6 Horizontal Stiffeners on Transverse Bulkheads - 6.7 Minimum Thickness of Longitudinal Bulkhead Plates - 6.8 Sharing Ratio of Shearing Force - 6.9 Corrugated Bulkheads - 6.10 Horizontal Girders on Corrugated Bulkheads - 6.11 Stiffness of Corrugated Bulkheads Against In - Plane Loads
7 Deck Structure
7.1 Stress Concentration at Hatch Corners - 7.1.1 General - 7.1.2 Contour Shape Optimization of Container Ship Hatch Corners - 7.2 Deck Strength for Locally Distributed Loads - 7.3 Deck Sustaining Upward Loads - 7.4 Damage to Deck Structure
8 Double Hull Structure
8.1 Structural System of Double Hull Structure - 8.2 Double Hull Structure and Single Hull Structure - 8.3 Examples of Double Hull Structures - 8.3.1 Cargo Ships - 8.3.2 Tankers - 8.3.3 Container Ships - 8.3.4 Nuclear Ships - 8.3.5 Large Bulk Carriers
9 Fore Construction
9.1 Structural Arrangement - 9.2 Structure of Shell Construction - 9.3 Vertical Acceleration Depending on Pitching - 9.4 Deck Structure - 9.5 Structural Continuity - 9.6 Large Damage in Fore Construction
10 Engine Room Construction
10.1 Engine and Pump Rooms Arrangement - 10.2 Rigidity Criteria in Engine Room Structure Design - 10.2.1 Double Bottom in Engine Room - 10.2.2 Panel, Web, Stiffener Etc - 10.3 Design of StructuralMembers in Engine Room - 10.4 Girders and Floors in Engine Room Double Bottom - 10.5 Problems Caused by Deflection of Engine Room Double Bottom - 10.6 Deflection of Engine Room Double Bottom - 10.6.1 Bending and Shearing Deflection of Hull Girder in the Vicinity of Engine Room - 10.6.2 Deformation ofWeb FrameWhich Supports Engine Room Double Bottom - 10.6.3 Bending and Shearing Deflections of Engine Room Double Bottom Itself - 10.7 Allowable Limit of Deflection of Engine Room Double Bottom - 10.8 Control of Deflection of Engine Room Double Bottom - 10.9 Sea Chest in Engine Room Double Bottom
11 Stern Construction and Stern Frame
11.1 Aft Peak Tank Construction - 11.2 Vibration of Stern Structure - 11.2.1 Vibration of Stern Overhang 515
11.2.2 Transverse Vibration of Stern Bossing of a Single Screw Vessel - 11.2.3 Vertical Vibration of Twin Bossing in Twin Screw Vessel - 11.3 Stern Frame
12 Vibration Prevention
12.1 Exciting Forces - 12.1.1 Magnitude of Propeller Excitation - 12.1.2 Magnitude of Diesel Engine Excitation - 12.1.3 Magnification of Exciting Force by Resonator - 12.1.4 Cancellation of Exciting Force - 12.1.5 Reduction of Main Engine Exciting Force by Elastic Mounting - 12.2 Prevention of Ship Vibration - 12.2.1 Flexural Vibration of Hull Girder - 12.2.2 Vibration of Superstructure - 12.2.3 Active Mass Damper for Superstructure Vibration - 12.2.4 Vibration of In - Tank Structures - 12.2.5 Calculation Methods of Natural Frequency of In - Tank Structures
13 Superstructure
13.1 Example of Damage to Long Superstructures - 13.2 Interaction of Superstructures and Main Hull - 13.3 Magnitude of Longitudinal Bending Stress - 13.4 Prevention of Structural Failures - 13.4.1 Structural Discontinuity - 13.4.2 Round Shape of Side Wall Opening Corner - 13.4.3 Buckling - 13.4.4 Expansion Joints
References
Index

# Title : Design of Ship Hull Structures: A Practical Guide for Engineers
# Author : Yasuhisa Okumoto, Yu Takeda, Masaki Mano, Tetsuo Okada
# Hardcover: 578 pages
# Publisher: Springer; 1 edition (January 12, 2009)
# Language: English
# ISBN-10: 3540884440
# ISBN-13: 978-3540884446

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4 Comentários:

request said...

thanks for the posting of this book. Do you have by any chance also the refrences of the corresponding sections I (pg 139), II and III

John said...

Links are all dead. Is there any chance of reposting this book.
Thanks in advance

Roman A. Pochinkov said...

Thanks a lot for this interesting post. We are developing now "POSEIDON" Project which will be devoted to fracture of the ship hull structures. If it will be interesting, you can visit http://www.pochinkov.blogspot.com. Thank you again.

Roman A. Pochinkov

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