18 April 2009

Ship Classification : Why is it called classification?

In the second half of the 18th century, marine insurers, based at Lloyd's coffee house in London, developed a system for the independent inspection of the hull and equipment of ships presented to them for insurance cover. In 1760 a Committee was formed for this express purpose, the earliest existing result of their initiative being Lloyd's Register Book for the years 1764-65-66.

At that time, an attempt was made to 'classify' the condition of each ship on an annual basis.
The condition of the hull was classified A, E, I, O or U, according to the excellence of its construction and its adjudged continuing soundness (or otherwise). Equipment was G, M, or B: simply, good, middling or bad. In time, G, M and B were replaced by 1, 2 and 3, which is the origin of the well-known expression 'A1', meaning 'first or highest class'.
The concept of classification caught on around the world. Bureau Veritas (BV) was founded in Antwerp in 1828, moving to Paris in 1832. 'Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping' was reconstituted as a self-standing 'classification society' in 1834; rules for construction and survey were published the same year.
Registro Italiano Navale (RINA) dates from 1861; American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) traces its origins back to 1862. Adoption of common rules for ship construction by Norwegian insurance societies in the late 1850s led to the establishment of Det Norske Veritas (DNV) in 1864. Germanischer Lloyd (GL) was formed in 1867 and Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (ClassNK) in 1899. The Russian Maritime Register of Shipping (RS) was an early offshoot of the River Register of 1913. More recent foundations have beenYugoslav Register of Shipping (now the Croatian Register of Shipping (CRS)) in 1949, China Classification Society (CCS), 1956; Korean Register (KR), 1960; and Indian Register of Shipping (IRS), 1975.

As the classification profession evolved, the practice of assigning different classifications has been superseded, with some exceptions. Today a ship either meets the relevant class society’s rules or it does not. As a consequence it is either 'in' or 'out' of 'class'. However, each of the classification societies has developed a series of notations that may be granted to a vessel to indicate that it is in compliance with some additional criteria that may be either specific to that vessel type or that are in excess of the standard classification requirements.

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IACS : International Association of Classification Societies

IACS can trace its origins back to the International Load Line Convention of 1930 and its
recommendations. The Convention recommended collaboration between classification
societies to secure "as much uniformity as possible in the application of the standards of
strength upon which freeboard is based…".

Following the Convention, RINA hosted the first conference of major societies in 1939 - also
attended by ABS, BV, DNV, GL, LR and NK - which agreed on further cooperation between
the societies.

A second major class society conference, held in 1955, led to the creation of Working Parties
on specific topics and, in 1968, to the formation of IACS by seven leading societies. The value
of their combined and unique level of technical knowledge and experience was quickly
recognised. In 1969, IACS was given consultative status with IMO. It remains the only nongovernmental organisation with Observer status which is able to develop and apply rules.
Compliance with the IACS Quality System Certification Scheme (QSCS) and observance of
the IACS Code of Ethics is mandatory for both IACS Member and Associate status.

IACS consists of 10 member societies and one associate, details of which are listed below. Chairmanship of IACS is on a rotational basis with each member society taking a turn.

Members

ABS (American Bureau of Shipping/USA)
abs-worldhq@eagle.org
http://www.eagle.org

BV (Bureau Veritas/Denmark)
veristarinfo@bureauveritas.com
http://www.veristar.com

CCS (China Classification Society/China)
ccs@ccs.org.cn
http://www.ccs.org.cn

DNV Det Norske Veritas
iacs@dnv.com
http://www.dnv.com

GL Germanischer Lloyd
headoffice@gl-group.com
http://www.gl-group.com

KR Korean Register of Shipping
krsiacs@krs.co.kr
http://www.krs.co.kr

LR Lloyd's Register
Lloydsreg@lr.org
http://www.lr.org

NK Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (ClassNK)
xad@classnk.or.jp
http://www.classnk.or.jp

RINA Registro Italiano Navale
info@rina.org
http://www.rina.org

RS Russian Maritime Register of Shipping
004@rs-head.spb.ru
http://www.rs-head.spb.ru/

Associates
IRS Indian Register of Shipping
ho@irclass.org
http://www.irclass.org

CRS Hrvatski Registar Brodova (Croatian Register of Shipping)
http://www.crs.hr/introduction.asp

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[yme0109] A New System of Naval Architecture - Annesley (1822)

William Annesley's System of Naval Architecture consists in building, from a justly proportioned model, vessels of every description, and dimensions, with planks or boards as t he tonnage requires) which are laid in courses at right angles alternately, longitudinal, vertical, or oblique, where the curve requires it, upon moulds formed from sections of the model. These moulds are not (unaptly) compared with centres of arches in civfl architecture, and may be removed when the last athwart course is laid on.
The first course is caulked and payed after the moulds are removed; each succeeding one may be caulked, payed, and papered, as laid on, until the last, which is finished as usual.

Kata dan frase kunci
gunwale, rabbet, Nine Elms, Naval Architecture, cut-water, schooner, Deptford, red pine, spiled, ellipsis, Flaunches, scarphed, tarred paper, chamfered, strakes, Belfast, buoyancy, Quebec, Prince Regent, Mandril

Table of Contents


Testimonials
1. Introduction
2. Origin and Progress of the System
3. Measurement
4. Simplicity and Economy in Building
5. Capacity. Strength
6. Tightness
7. Durability
8. Buoyancy. Sailing
9. Elegance must consist in the Propriety of Form
10.Safety
11.Repairs
12.Bilge, or Side Keels
13.Vessels of War
14.Circular Port Holes
15.Fishing Vessels
16.Canal Boats, Barges, and Lighters
17.Experiments
18.References to Plates
19.National Saving
Final Remarks


# Title : A New System of Naval Architecture
# Author: William Annesley
# Media count: 328 pages
# Publisher: W. Nicol, and sold by G. and W. Nicol (1922)
# Language: English
# HARVARD UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
#
Hardcover


---
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15 April 2009

MoU Pembiayaan Perkapalan

Dalam acara Workshop Dunia Usaha "Peluang Pembiayaan Industri Pelayaran Nasional" tersebut, dilakukan juga penandatanganan dua Memorandum Of Understanding (MoU).

MoU yang pertama antara PT Bank CIMB Niaga dengan PT Wintermar. Dukungan ini merupakan dukungan PT Bank CIMB Niaga dalam kegiatan pembiayaan satu unit kapa 48 meter utility vessel MPV dan satu unit kapal 50 meter AHT 5200 HP dengan rencana pembiayaan sekitr USD 10 juta.

MoU yang kedua yakni antara PT PANN (Persero) dalam kegiatan pembiayaan dengan 3 perusahaan perkapalan, yaitu :

1. PT Putra Jaya Offshore. Sebesar USD 14 juta untuk membiayai dua kapal unit kapal utility support vessel.
2. PT Samudra Rezeki Permata. Sebesar USD 3,96 juta untuk membiayai dua unit kapal crew boat 24 pax
3. PT Artha Jaya Sejahtera. Sebesar USD 20,5 juta untuk membiayai satu unit kapal general cargo 6500 DWT dan satu unit kapal tanker.


Selain itu, Muliaman juga menilai bahwa perlu adanya keterbukaan dalam pembiayaan industri pelayaran di Indonesia.

Dengan adanya keterbukaan tersebut, baik perbankan dan lembaga keuangan dapat hambatan-hambatan dan risiko menjadi lebih terukur serta perbankan dan lembaga keuangan lebih mudah bagi untuk memberikan kreditnya.

"Pertumbuhan kredit di sektor industri pelayaran sangat diharapkan, oleh karena itu BI merasa perlu mencari peluang-peluang dan mengembangkan potensi yang ada," ujar Muliaman.

Ia menjelaskan, pinjaman dari perbankan menjadi tidak jalan dikarenakan terbatasnya informasi yang menyebabkan tidak adanya lending.

"Melalui forum diskusi ini maka diharapkan akan membuka mata kita semua, dapat terbuka hambatan-hambatan dan risiko yang terdapat dalam industri pelayaran ini," jelas Muliaman.

Di dalam industri pelayaran, lanjut Muliaman, diharuskan adanya transparansi, industri ini merupakan bisnis terbuka dan berpotensi besar timbul kerawanan-kerawanan, maka dari itu dengan adanya keterbukaan maka perbankan dan lembaga keuangan dapat melakukan pengawasan dalam pemberian kreditnya.

"Jika dilihat hulu dan hilir maka potensi industri ini sangat besar untuk dibiayai, namun karena belum secara mendalam dipelajari maka perbankan dan lembaga keuangan belum mengerti risiko yang ada," paparnya.

Muliaman juga mengatakan, kerjasama antar perbankan dan pelaku industri pelayaran harus berjalan seimbang agar tercipta iklim yang baik dan berkurangnya risiko kredit macet.

"Ada dua hal yang perlu diperhatikan yakni ability to pay atau kemampuan kembali membayar dan yang kedua yakni willingness to pay atau keinginan untuk membayar," tutur Muliaman.
(dru/lih)
sumber : detik.com

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07 April 2009

Design of Ship Hull Structures - Okumoto, et.al (2009)

The ship design is divided generally into four parts, hull form design, arrangement design, hull structure design, and fitting design (hull fitting and machinery fitting).
The design of merchant ships starts with the owner’s requirements such as kind and volume of cargo, transportation route and time generally. Sometimes the owner has a special requirement such as no bulkhead in hold.
Based on the above requirements a general arrangement plan is roughly designed and the studies are to be done from stability, strength, operation, and habitability viewpoints. Thus the general arrangement plan is finally decided with correction if necessary. Referring the lines plan, which shows the hull form, and the general arrangement plan, in the hull structure design the size, position, and materials of the structural members are decided, including the fabrication and assembly methods.
The most important duty of the hull structure design is to supply a strong enough hull structure against the internal and external loads. The text books or hand books of hull strength are helpful to the hull structure designer. However these books are generally written from the viewpoint of the strength theory and seem not to be sufficient from the design viewpoint.
The authors are hull structure designers in four generations, from the developing era of the structural design by large increase of the ship size and increase of ship production to establishing era of the design technology using computer; CAD and CAE. In this book the experiences of the authors in the above generations are condensed from the design viewpoint. Hence this book includes not only basic theory but also practical design matter. The authors are convinced that this book will be strong weapon for designers to design the hull structure as well as for students to understand the hull structure design in the world.

Table of Contents

Part I FUNDAMENTALS

1 Philosophy of Hull Structure Design
1.1 Importance of Hull Structure Design - 1.2 Design Procedure of Structures - 1.3 Hull Structure Design Policy - 1.4 Basic Idea of Hull Structure Design - 1.5 Studies on Loads Applied - 1.6 Reliable Design
2 Structural Design Loads
2.1 Introduction - 2.2 Longitudinal Strength Load - 2.3 Transverse Strength Load - 2.4 Ship Response Calculation in Waves - 2.4.1 Introduction - 2.4.2 Strip Method - 2.4.3 Short - Term Prediction - 2.4.4 Long - Term Prediction
3 Strength Evaluation
3.1 General - 3.1.1 Introduction - 3.1.2 Procedure of Structural Strength Evaluation - 3.2 Stress and Strain - 3.2.1 Stress Pattern - 3.2.2 Biaxial Stress Condition - 3.2.3 Combination of Normal Stress and Shearing Stress - 3.2.4 Principal Stress and Principal Shearing Stress - 3.2.5 Equivalent Stress - 3.2.6 Evaluation of Stress Calculated by FEM - 3.3 Evaluation of Stress - 3.3.1 Criteria of Failure - 3.3.2 Allowable Stress - 3.4 Fatigue Strength - 3.4.1 Introduction - 3.4.2 S–N Curve - 3.4.3 Fatigue Damage - 3.5 Buckling of Ship Structure - 3.5.1 Introduction - 3.5.2 Column Buckling - 3.5.3 Plate Buckling - 3.6 Plastic Strength - 3.6.1 Philosophy of Plastic Strength - 3.6.2 Plastic Bending - 3.6.3 Plastic Section Modulus - 3.6.4 Collapse of a Beam - 3.6.5 Collapse of a Plate - 3.7 Vibration in Ship - 3.7.1 Introduction - 3.7.2 Basic Theory of Single Degree of Freedom Vibration System - 3.7.3 Vibration Problems in Ships - 3.7.4 Vibration Prevention Design - 3.8 Selection of Strength Analysis Method - 3.8.1 Introduction - 3.8.2 Type of AnalysisMethod - 3.8.3 Analysis Procedure - 3.8.4 Evaluation of Analysis Result
4 Hull Structure Design System
4.1 Design Flow. - 4.2 Basic Design of Hull Structures - 4.2.1 Role of Basic Design - 4.2.2 Check of General Arrangement - 4.2.3 Check of Other Drawings - 4.2.4 Optimization Technique in Basic Design Process - 4.3 Structural Drawings - 4.3.1 Approval Drawings - 4.3.2 Detail Drawings - 4.3.3 Production Data - 4.4 Standardization - 4.5 Negotiation with Owner
5 Progress in Ship Design
5.1 Increase in Ship Dimensions of Tankers - 5.2 Specialization of Ships - 5.3 Change of Hull Form - 5.4 Ship Vibration Caused by Socio-Economical Change - 5.5 Regulations for Environmental Conservation - 5.6 Technical Innovation
6 Materials
6.1 Hull Steel - 6.2 Grades of Steel - 6.3 Higher - Strength Steel - 6.4 Steel Sections - 6.5 Other Materials - 6.6 Scattering of Material Properties - 6.7 Scattering of Physical Properties - 6.8 Residual Stress
7 Finite Element Method
7.1 Characteristics of FEM - 7.2 Fundamentals of FEM - 7.2.1 StiffnessMatrix - 7.2.2 Plane Stress - 7.3 Procedure of FEM - 7.4 Application of FEM - 7.4.1 Mesh Division - 7.4.2 Loading and Supporting Condition -
7.4.3 Degrees of Freedom
References

Part II THEORY
1 Design of Beam
1.1 Effective Breadth of Attached Plates - 1.1.1 Bending in Elastic Conditions - 1.1.2 EffectiveWidth After Plate Buckling - 1.2 Span Point of Beams - 1.3 Design of Cross Section - 1.3.1 Calculation of Section Modulus - 1.4 Bending Moment - 1.5 Easy Solution of Statically Indeterminate Beams - 1.6 Boundary Condition - 1.7 Cross - Sectional Area of Beams - 1.8 Optimum Design of Beam Section - 1.8.1 Elastic Design - 1.8.2 Plastic Design - 1.8.3 Optimal Proportion for Beams - 1.9 Simply Supported Beams and Continuous Beams - 1.10 Effect of Struts - 1.11 Additional Bending Moment due to Forced Displacement - 1.12 LateralMovement of Beams
2 Design of Girders
2.1 Shearing Force - 2.2 Rational Design of Girders - 2.3 Bottom Transverses Supported by Centerline Girder - 2.4 Deflection of Girders
3 Damage of Girders
3.1 Buckling Caused by Compression - 3.2 Buckling Caused by Bending - 3.3 Buckling Caused by Shearing - 3.4 Buckling Caused by Concentrated Loads - 3.5 Cracks Around Slot - 3.5.1 Cracks of First Generation - 3.5.2 Cracks Propagating into Longitudinals - 3.5.3 Cracks Around Slots due to Shear Stress on Transverses
4 Design of Pillars
4.1 Slenderness Ratio of Pillars - 4.2 Sectional Shape of Pillars - 4.3 Pillar Supporting Tensile Force - 4.4 Connection of Pillar at Top and Bottom - 4.5 Cross Ties - 4.6 Radius of Gyration of Square Section
5 Design of Plates
5.1 Boundary Conditions of Plates - 5.2 Strength of Plates Under Lateral Loads - 5.3 Strength of Plates by In - Plane Loads - 5.4 Plates Supporting Bending and Compression Simultaneously - 5.5 Stress Concentration Around Openings - 5.6 Material and Roll Direction - 5.7 Damage of Plates
6 Design of Stiffened Panel
6.1 Grillage Structure - 6.2 Optimum Space of Girders - 6.3 Optimum Space of Beams - 6.3.1 Design Condition Against Lateral Load like Water Pressure - 6.3.2 Design Conditions from Vibration Viewpoint - 6.3.3 Minimum Plate Thickness - 6.3.4 Optimum Beam Space
7 Torsion
7.1 Overview of the Theory - 7.2 Torsion Theory of Closed Section Bars - 7.3 Torsional Rigidity of Various Sections - 7.4 Torsion Theory of I - Section - 7.5 Torsion Theory of Open Section Bars
8 Deflection of Hull Structures
8.1 Deflection of Hull Girder - 8.2 Deflection of Beams with Optimum Section - 8.3 Deflection of Girders and Web Frames - 8.4 Additional Stress Caused by Deflection - 8.5 Shearing Deflection
9 Welding
9.1 ButtWelding - 9.2 Fillet Welding - 9.3 Fillet Welding with Higher Strength Electrode - 9.4 Water Stopping Welding - 9.5 Scallop and Serration - 9.6 Conversion of Butt Welding to Fillet Welding - 9.7 Long Intermittent Welding - 9.8 Shrinkage of Deposit Metal - 9.9 One SideWelding
10 Fracture Control
10.1 Jack - Knifed Failure of Liberty Ships - 10.2 Fracture Mechanics - 10.2.1 Principles. - 10.2.2 Linear Fracture Mechanics - 10.2.3 Non - Linear Fracture Mechanics - 10.2.4 Fracture Toughness - 10.2.5 Grade of Steel - 10.3 Fatigue Strength Design - 10.3.1 Crack Propagation Calculation by Paris’s Equation - 10.3.2 Fatigue Strength Design Taking into Account Construction Tolerances
11 Hull Structural Vibration
11.1 Introduction - 11.2 Basic Features of Hull Structure Vibration - 11.3 Overview of Ship Vibration - 11.4 Boundary Conditions of Hull Structure Vibration - 11.5 Current Boundary Conditions of Hull Structure Vibration
References

Part III APPLICATIONS
1 Hull Structure Arrangement
1.1 Hold Arrangement - 1.2 Criteria of Design of Hull Structure Arrangement - 1.2.1 Wing Tanks of Tankers - 1.2.2 Bulkhead Arrangement of Bulk Carriers - 1.3 Bulkhead Arrangement Beyond Cargo Hold - 1.3.1 Bow Construction Without Extended Longitudinal Bulkheads - 1.3.2 Engine Room Construction Without Extended Longitudinal Bulkheads
2 Longitudinal Strength of Hull Girder
2.1 Allowable Stress for Longitudinal Strength - 2.2 Position of Maximum Longitudinal Bending Moment - 2.3 Calculation of Section Modulus of Hull Girder - 2.4 Longitudinal Strength and Hull Steel Weight - 2.5 Application of High Tensile Steel - 2.6 Longitudinal Strength Analysis in Waves - 2.7 Arrangement of Longitudinal Strength Members - 2.8 Stress Concentration on Longitudinal Strength Members - 2.9 Additional Bending of Local Members Due to Hull Girder Bending - 2.10 Longitudinal Bending Stress in Fore & Aft Parts of Ship - 2.11 Hull Steel Weight Reduce to Ultimate Strength
3 Transverse Strength of Ship
3.1 Allowable Stress for Transverse Strength - 3.2 Long Taper & Snake Head - 3.3 Shape of Bottom Transverse in Center Tank - 3.4 Shape of Bottom Transverse in Wing Tank - 3.5 Transverse Strength of Tanker - 3.5.1 Cross Ties - 3.5.2 Load Applied on Transverse Strength Members - 3.5.3 Inside Pressure in Wide Tanks - 3.5.4 Connection Between Transverse Ring and Side Shell - 3.5.5 Buckling onWeb of Transverse Rings - 3.5.6 Straight Type and Circular Type Construction - 3.5.7 Transverse Rings at Fore & Aft Parts of Tank - 3.6 Transverse Strength of Ore Carrier - 3.7 Transverse Strength of Bulk Carrier - 3.8 Transverse Strength of Container Ships
4 Torsional Strength
4.1 Structural Damage Due to Torsion (Example No. 1) - 4.2 Structural Damage Due to Torsion (Example No. 2)
5 Shell Structure
5.1 Thickness of Shell Plates - 5.2 Shell at Bottom Forward - 5.3 Shell at Bow Flare - 5.4 Bilge Shell - 5.5 Shell near Stern Frame - 5.6 Shell Damage
6 Bulkheads
6.1 Strength of Bulkhead Plates - 6.2 Horizontal Girders on Transverse Bulkheads (in Center Tank) - 6.3 Horizontal Girder Arrangement on Bulkheads - 6.4 Vertical Stiffeners on Transverse Bulkheads - 6.5 Swash Bulkheads - 6.6 Horizontal Stiffeners on Transverse Bulkheads - 6.7 Minimum Thickness of Longitudinal Bulkhead Plates - 6.8 Sharing Ratio of Shearing Force - 6.9 Corrugated Bulkheads - 6.10 Horizontal Girders on Corrugated Bulkheads - 6.11 Stiffness of Corrugated Bulkheads Against In - Plane Loads
7 Deck Structure
7.1 Stress Concentration at Hatch Corners - 7.1.1 General - 7.1.2 Contour Shape Optimization of Container Ship Hatch Corners - 7.2 Deck Strength for Locally Distributed Loads - 7.3 Deck Sustaining Upward Loads - 7.4 Damage to Deck Structure
8 Double Hull Structure
8.1 Structural System of Double Hull Structure - 8.2 Double Hull Structure and Single Hull Structure - 8.3 Examples of Double Hull Structures - 8.3.1 Cargo Ships - 8.3.2 Tankers - 8.3.3 Container Ships - 8.3.4 Nuclear Ships - 8.3.5 Large Bulk Carriers
9 Fore Construction
9.1 Structural Arrangement - 9.2 Structure of Shell Construction - 9.3 Vertical Acceleration Depending on Pitching - 9.4 Deck Structure - 9.5 Structural Continuity - 9.6 Large Damage in Fore Construction
10 Engine Room Construction
10.1 Engine and Pump Rooms Arrangement - 10.2 Rigidity Criteria in Engine Room Structure Design - 10.2.1 Double Bottom in Engine Room - 10.2.2 Panel, Web, Stiffener Etc - 10.3 Design of StructuralMembers in Engine Room - 10.4 Girders and Floors in Engine Room Double Bottom - 10.5 Problems Caused by Deflection of Engine Room Double Bottom - 10.6 Deflection of Engine Room Double Bottom - 10.6.1 Bending and Shearing Deflection of Hull Girder in the Vicinity of Engine Room - 10.6.2 Deformation ofWeb FrameWhich Supports Engine Room Double Bottom - 10.6.3 Bending and Shearing Deflections of Engine Room Double Bottom Itself - 10.7 Allowable Limit of Deflection of Engine Room Double Bottom - 10.8 Control of Deflection of Engine Room Double Bottom - 10.9 Sea Chest in Engine Room Double Bottom
11 Stern Construction and Stern Frame
11.1 Aft Peak Tank Construction - 11.2 Vibration of Stern Structure - 11.2.1 Vibration of Stern Overhang 515
11.2.2 Transverse Vibration of Stern Bossing of a Single Screw Vessel - 11.2.3 Vertical Vibration of Twin Bossing in Twin Screw Vessel - 11.3 Stern Frame
12 Vibration Prevention
12.1 Exciting Forces - 12.1.1 Magnitude of Propeller Excitation - 12.1.2 Magnitude of Diesel Engine Excitation - 12.1.3 Magnification of Exciting Force by Resonator - 12.1.4 Cancellation of Exciting Force - 12.1.5 Reduction of Main Engine Exciting Force by Elastic Mounting - 12.2 Prevention of Ship Vibration - 12.2.1 Flexural Vibration of Hull Girder - 12.2.2 Vibration of Superstructure - 12.2.3 Active Mass Damper for Superstructure Vibration - 12.2.4 Vibration of In - Tank Structures - 12.2.5 Calculation Methods of Natural Frequency of In - Tank Structures
13 Superstructure
13.1 Example of Damage to Long Superstructures - 13.2 Interaction of Superstructures and Main Hull - 13.3 Magnitude of Longitudinal Bending Stress - 13.4 Prevention of Structural Failures - 13.4.1 Structural Discontinuity - 13.4.2 Round Shape of Side Wall Opening Corner - 13.4.3 Buckling - 13.4.4 Expansion Joints
References
Index

# Title : Design of Ship Hull Structures: A Practical Guide for Engineers
# Author : Yasuhisa Okumoto, Yu Takeda, Masaki Mano, Tetsuo Okada
# Hardcover: 578 pages
# Publisher: Springer; 1 edition (January 12, 2009)
# Language: English
# ISBN-10: 3540884440
# ISBN-13: 978-3540884446

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Perbandingan Nilai Ekonomis Aluminium Oxide vs Pasir Silica

Abrasive Cost Comparison


Silica Sand Aluminum Oxide
Abrasive Cost
Cost Per Ton $60.00 $700
Nozzle Volume/Hr. (Lbs)* 2,000 2,000
Breakdown Factor 100.00% 10.00%
Used Abrasive (Lbs.) 2,000 200
Cost of Abrasive Used $60.00 $70.00
Other Costs
Labor $20.00 $20.00
Disposal Cost ($25/Ton) $25.00 $2.50
Material Handling?

Procurement Cost?

Storage?

Total Costs $105.00 $92.50
Productivity
Sq. Feet Blasted/Hr. 285 285
Cost/Square Foot Blasted $0.368 $0.325
*1/2" Blast Nozzle

source : www.osha.gov

Asumsi yang digunakan untuk penggunaan kembali Aluminum Oxide adalah 10 kali

Dalam prakteknya, Aluminium Oxide mengembangkan sebuah campuran ukuran grit yang optimal (working mix) untuk mengoptimalkan jumlah impact abrasive pada permukaan substrate - ini dapat menghasilkan rasio tingkat kebersihan yang lebih cepat daripada yang dapat dicapai dengan Silica Sand. Contoh diatas memakai asumsi konservatif rasio tingkat kebersihan antara kedua bahan.

Walaupun biaya penanganan bahan, penyimpanan, dan biaya pengadaan belum dihitung, semua ini akan lebih tinggi dengan volume yang lebih besar dari bahan yang harus digunakan saat blasting dengan Silica Sand versus Aluminium Oxide.

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05 April 2009

Selling the Sea: An Inside Look at the Cruise Industry - Dickinson,Vladimir (2007)

In fact, the cruise industry is just another service industry. Each ship is like a factory where people come to get serviced.
In this book, we explore the behind-the-scenes world of the cruise industry. Who are the people who make this magic? How do they decide to build a cruise ship, which can easily cost as much as $800 million? Who designs these floating palaces? Why do people get addicted to cruising? Some have taken more than one hundred cruises with the same cruise line! How do the cruise lines make money while delivering such a highquality product for a price that people consider a good value? Can this business continue to grow at a rapid pace, as it has done in the past, or will America be all cruised out in a few years?
We haven’t got all the answers, but we’ll bring you the best thinking from the people who run the ships, the people who work on them, and the travel agents who sell them. Because we are insiders, we can tell you things no other book will, or wants to.
Read on, and enjoy!

Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1 Casting Off: The Evolution from Steamship Transportation to Cruising as a Vacation
Chapter 2 Coming About: The Foundation of the Modern Cruise Industry
Chapter 3 Life on the Ocean Wave: Living and Working Aboard Modern Cruise Ships
Chapter 4 Home on the Rolling Deep: Case Studies in Backstage Management
Chapter 5 Getting Underway: The Public Discovers Cruising Vacations
Chapter 6 Your Cruise Line GPS: Positioning and Differentiation of Cruise Lines
Chapter 7 Now Hear This: Marketing Communications—A View from the Bridge
Chapter 8 Pieces of Eight: Making Money on the High Seas
Chapter 9 Booking Passage: A Fresh Look at Today’s Travel Agent
Chapter 10 Bob & Andy’s Vacation Store: Selling the Sea—The Way We’d Do It
Appendix CLIA Member Cruise Lines
Index

# Title : Selling the Sea: An Inside Look at the Cruise Industry
# Author : Bob Dickinson, Andy Vladimir
# Paperback: 352 pages
# Publisher: Wiley; 2 edition (April 27, 2007)
# Language: English
# ISBN-10: 0471749184
# ISBN-13: 978-0471749189

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A Thief @ AvaxHome - read before using any RapidShare link

There is a growing number of phishing/spoofing rapidshare-similar mirrors in comments. Using it you run the risk of your rapidshare account being STOLEN.
Check them carefully before using, a proper RapidShare mirror has the following format:

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A spoofing link is different e.g.

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